Up to 50% of all women and 30% of all men experience a fracture during their lifetime. Unfortunately, 10% of all fractures fail to adequately heal with the majority requiring bone grafting to restore the bony defect. Due to the inherent risks of autologous bone grafts and the projected shortage in allograft donors, the need to find the ideal bone graft substitute has never been greater. Aim and methods: To identify ideal bone graft substitutes to aid bone healing by testing novel bone active factors using established in vitro and pre clinical animal models within the Bone Laboratory. Hypothesis: Novel bone active factors will promote safe and effective bone healing with results comparable to the current 'gold standard' autologous bone grafting. Goal: To translate significant findings from the 'bench to the bed side'. Promising bone active factors identified from this PhD research will be tested in prospective clinical trials.