Many critically ill patients are unable to respond to the demands that fever places on the body. One potential way to protect patients from the adverse clinical effects of fever is to systematically prevent and treat fever. This strategy is an attractive candidate intervention to reduce mortality risk in the ICU because patients with a range of critical illnesses including those admitted to ICU with acute brain pathologies, those following major surgery, trauma, infection, acute myocardial infarction, and pancreatitis frequently develop fever. Among patients who have brain pathologies there is additional concern that fever may directly exacerbate brain injury. This application is to support and expand a programme of research into the field of fever management in critically ill adults.