This research will provide policy makers with comprehensive and robust evidence on the most effective way to reduce the impact of childhood poverty on health. We will consider direct and indirect mechanisms through which poverty influences child health, so that resources can be directed for maximal impact. Through the construction of a child cohort from linked administrative and survey data (the Integrated Data Infrastructure), and the use of cutting edge analysis techniques, the following research questions will be addressed: 1) What is the effect of childhood poverty on health, and for which health outcomes? 2) Which aspects of poverty dynamics (i.e., timing, duration) have the greatest impact on later health outcomes? 3) Which factors most strongly mediate the association between child poverty and health, and what are the likely benefits of intervening on these factors? This research will inform the nature and timing of interventions to reduce the impact of child poverty.