Bone injuries, disorders and diseases result in severe bone defects, where approximately NZ$ 3.3b was spent on treating bone defects in 2007, and is projected to increase by 30% by 2020. Autologous bone transplantation remains as the standard clinical approach used to treat large bone defects. However, there are critical limitations associated with the bone graft harvest, such as donor site morbidity, prolonged surgery time and limited supply. This research aims to use a Lego approach, namely 3-dimensional (3D) bioassembly, which allows control over the spatial organization and localization of individual building blocks, that can be combined to form a multi-functional bone graft. We believe that the success of this project will contribute to improved outcomes for individuals and populations with bone related disease or injury.