Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Inhibitory tone in the brain is altered by stroke and dictates how plasticity and recovery of function occur after stroke, but this varies from one individual to the next. Our objective is to identify factors that predict how best to apply non-invasive brain stimulation to modulate inhibitory tone and facilitate motor recovery in the initial days and weeks after stroke. To fulfil this objective, advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessments will be undertaken to establish links between inhibitory function, effects of brain stimulation on recovery, and patient outcomes. This project will increase the understanding of the molecular, cellular and neurophysiological mechanisms of recovery of motor function in human patients after stroke and reduce inequalities in stroke outcomes for people who are more likely to suffer stroke earlier and live with disability longer.