Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability, with a high and escalating incidence in Pacific people. Pacific people after stroke show the poorest functional outcomes and are more likely to be dependent. Arm impairment is a common problem that disables many patients from performing activities required for an independent life. A major contributing factor to arm impairment after stroke is abnormal coupling between muscles. Noninvasive brain stimulation has shown beneficial effects for patients' motor recovery after stroke, with this team first to show its potential for addressing abnormal muscle patterns that impair reaching ability and contribute to reduced use and poor recovery of the hand. The goal of this research is to further the applicants' academic career as the first Pacific researcher in this field. Neurophysiologic studies will be conducted to investigate mechanisms of motor recovery and refine brain stimulation protocols, to ultimately optimise physical therapy after stroke.