The central questions this research is seeking to answer relate to the causes and drivers of functional crowding. Does the quality of housing limit the number of rooms that can be inhabited in the house? Are the drivers of functional crowding different in different parts of New Zealand? This research has been designed to explore what are the specific housing conditions that are driving high rates of rheumatic fever (RF) in Maori and Pacific children in order to increase our understanding of how these exposures can be modified in ways that are likely to be effective, feasible, and acceptable. This research will seek to understand the cultural and socio-economic context that affects housing, the broader determinants, and the wider opportunities for improving housing conditions.