The number of elderly people commencing dialysis in NZ has increased by almost 400% in the past decade. Little information is available about health-related outcomes and survival on dialysis in the elderly to help the individual, their whanau, clinicians and health planners with decision-making. This study will provide the first comprehensive longitudinal survey of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes for individuals aged 65 years on, or eligible for, dialysis therapy and will link these data to survival outcomes. Data collected by yearly structured interviews with participants will be linked to co-morbidity data; health service use; and laboratory information collected from health records, analysed with respect to survival. The information obtained will inform the delivery of dialysis services in New Zealand and facilitate improved decision-making by individuals, their whanau and clinicians, about the appropriateness and impact of dialysis therapy on subsequent health and survival.